45. When you have the enemy’s strongholds on your rear, and narrow passes in front, it is hemmed-in ground. When there is no place of refuge at all, it is desperate ground.

背固前隘者圍地也無所往者死地也

Sun Tzu

Locations that are difficult to access or retreat from due to their geography or other factors are considered hemmed-in ground. Sun Tzu, a military strategist and general, warned about the risks of being surrounded by narrow gorges or having to retreat through winding, difficult paths, as this can put a military force at a disadvantage. In these situations, the military force is “hemmed-in” and has limited options for escape or man

A situation that is considered “desperate ground” is one in which the only way to avoid destruction is to fight immediately. In other words, waiting or hesitation could result in defeat or destruction, and the only option is to engage in battle without delay. Sun Tzu, a military strategist and general, believed that careful analysis of the situation and the proper use of strategy and tactics were essential for success in battle. This quote highlights the importance of swift and decisive action in the face of danger or crisis.

When a market has little opportunity for growth, and is difficult to exit, it is hemmed-in ground. When a business can only succeed through constant struggle, it is desperate ground.

Hemmed-in ground is a market characterized by limited growth potential, difficulty in exiting, and low barriers to entry. These constraints can make it challenging for businesses to expand or improve their position in the market. There may be intense competition in hemmed-in ground, and companies may need to find innovative ways to adapt or overcome these limitations in order to succeed. This type of market presents significant challenges for businesses and may require them to be strategic and resourceful in order to succeed.

Desperate ground is a market that is highly challenging for businesses to operate in and offers few opportunities for success or exit. This type of market may be characterized by intense competition, rapid changes, or other factors that make it difficult for businesses to thrive. In order to succeed in desperate ground, businesses may need to constantly struggle and take bold, decisive actions. This can be a stressful and resource-intensive process, as businesses must constantly adapt to the challenges of the market in order to survive. To succeed in desperate ground, businesses may need to be strategic, resilient, and willing to take risks in order to differentiate themselves from the competition.